Middle Guajira is the central region of the department, predominantly flat and semi-desert. Although with lagoons and wetlands near the mouth of the Ranchería River, where Riohacha, departmental capital and one of the oldest cities in the Caribbean is located. It was populated by pearl seekers from the Venezuelan island of Cubagua, who had initially settled in Cabo de la Vela, in the 16th century.
Middle Guajira, Semiarid, Colonial, immigrant with Caribbean and Islamic mixture.
Maicao, founded less than a hundred years ago. Became a commercial point that attracted visitors and inhabitants from all over the country and abroad. There is a large Arab community that has become part of the ethnic range of the region.